Carl Djerassi, born on October 29, 1923, in Vienna, Austria, was a prominent chemist, writer, and inventor who made significant contributions to the field of pharmaceuticals and reproductive health. Djerassi’s groundbreaking work led to the development of the birth control pill, which revolutionized contraception and had a profound impact on women’s reproductive rights and societal dynamics. This article delves into the life, accomplishments, and scientific legacy of Carl Djerassi, highlighting his key inventions, notable collaborators, and the places that played a significant role in his remarkable journey.
Born to Samuel Djerassi, an ophthalmologist, and Alice Friedmann, a dentist, Carl Djerassi grew up in a family that valued education and intellectual pursuits. At the age of 16, he fled from Austria to the United States to escape the mounting threat of the Nazi regime. Djerassi settled in the Bronx, New York, where he continued his education and embarked on a path that would shape the future of reproductive health.
Djerassi’s scientific journey began at Kenyon College, Ohio, where he earned his undergraduate degree in chemistry in 1942. His academic prowess led him to pursue a Ph.D. at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where he conducted research under the guidance of Professor Hermann Irving Schlesinger, a renowned inorganic chemist.
Djerassi’s most notable invention, which brought him international acclaim, was the development of the first oral contraceptive pill. The birth control pill, also known as “The Pill,” revolutionized family planning by providing a reliable and convenient method of contraception for women. Djerassi, along with his colleagues, pioneered the synthesis of the key hormone, progesterone, and its derivatives, leading to the creation of an effective oral contraceptive.
Djerassi collaborated with several other scientists and researchers throughout his career. Notably, he worked closely with George Rosenkranz, a fellow chemist, and Luis E. Miramontes, a Mexican chemist, in the development of the birth control pill. Their collective efforts resulted in the successful synthesis of the progestin norethindrone, a key component of the oral contraceptive.
The creation of the birth control pill was a collaborative effort that involved additional contributors such as Gregory Goodwin Pincus, an American biologist, and John Rock, an American gynecologist. Together, they conducted extensive clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the contraceptive pill, paving the way for its widespread adoption.
The introduction of the birth control pill marked a turning point in reproductive health and women’s rights. Its availability empowered women to take control of their reproductive choices, allowing them to pursue education, careers, and personal goals with greater freedom. The impact of this innovation extended far beyond contraception, shaping societal norms, and challenging traditional gender roles.
Djerassi’s contributions to science extended beyond the birth control pill. He made significant advancements in the field of organic chemistry and pioneered the development of novel techniques in mass spectrometry. Additionally, he contributed to the synthesis of other pharmaceuticals, including corticosteroids and anti-inflammatory drugs.
In addition to his scientific endeavors, Carl Djerassi was also an accomplished writer and playwright. He published several novels, plays, and memoirs, exploring themes related to science, art, and the human condition.
Djerassi’s passion for writing allowed him to explore the intersection of science and art. He wrote plays that delved into the ethical dilemmas of scientific research and the human consequences of technological advancements. One of his most notable works, the play “Oxygen,” explored the complex relationships between scientists and the moral implications of their discoveries.
Throughout his life, Djerassi received numerous accolades and honors for his scientific achievements and contributions to society. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. In recognition of his groundbreaking work, he was awarded the National Medal of Science by President Gerald Ford in 1973.
In his later years, Djerassi dedicated himself to fostering scientific and artistic collaborations. He established the Djerassi Resident Artists Program, which provided a supportive environment for artists and scientists to work together and inspire one another. This unique initiative aimed to bridge the gap between these seemingly disparate fields and encourage interdisciplinary innovation.
On January 30, 2015, at the age of 91, Carl Djerassi passed away in his home in San Francisco, leaving behind a remarkable scientific and literary legacy. His contributions to reproductive health, organic chemistry, and interdisciplinary collaborations continue to shape the fields of science and arts.
Carl Djerassi Early Life and Education:
Born on October 29, 1923, in Vienna, Austria, Carl Djerassi grew up in a city known for its rich cultural heritage. He was the son of Samuel Djerassi, an ophthalmologist, and Alice Friedmann, a dentist. From an early age, Djerassi was immersed in an environment that fostered intellectual curiosity and a love for learning.
Djerassi’s early life took an unexpected turn as the threat of the Nazi regime loomed over Europe. In 1938, when Djerassi was just 16 years old, his Jewish heritage compelled him to flee Austria and seek refuge in the United States. The decision to leave his home and family behind demonstrated both his resilience and the determination to pursue his education and future endeavors.
Upon arriving in the United States, Djerassi settled in the Bronx, New York. This vibrant borough became his new home and the starting point for his academic journey. Despite the challenges of adapting to a new culture and language, Djerassi’s intellect and dedication quickly became apparent.
Djerassi’s academic journey began at Kenyon College in Ohio, where he pursued his undergraduate degree in chemistry. Under the guidance of influential professors, Djerassi’s passion for chemistry flourished, and he thrived in the rigorous academic environment. His time at Kenyon College laid the foundation for his future scientific pursuits.
Inspired by his undergraduate studies, Djerassi embarked on a path of further academic exploration, joining the distinguished University of Wisconsin-Madison for his doctoral studies. It was here that Djerassi had the opportunity to work under the mentorship of Professor Hermann Irving Schlesinger, a renowned inorganic chemist.
Under Schlesinger’s guidance, Djerassi delved into groundbreaking research, exploring various aspects of chemistry and expanding his expertise in the field. This formative experience provided the knowledge and skills that would shape his future contributions to the scientific community.
Throughout his early academic years, Carl Djerassi engaged in collaborations and intellectual exchanges with notable individuals in the scientific community. These interactions fostered a spirit of innovation and contributed to his multifaceted approach to research.
Among his notable collaborators were chemists such as George Rosenkranz and Luis E. Miramontes, who played key roles in the development of the birth control pill. Djerassi’s collaborative efforts with these scientists would ultimately lead to the revolutionary breakthrough in contraception.
Carl Djerassi: Family, Relationships, and Personal Life
In 1949, Carl Djerassi married Virginia Green, an artist and sculptor who shared his passion for the arts and intellectual pursuits. Their marriage lasted for over two decades and produced two children, Pamela and Dale. Virginia’s support and creative influence played a crucial role in Djerassi’s personal and professional development.
Djerassi’s family was a source of inspiration and support throughout his life. His father, Samuel Djerassi, was an ophthalmologist who instilled in him a sense of discipline and intellectual curiosity. His mother, Alice Friedmann, a dentist, nurtured his artistic and creative inclinations.
Djerassi’s children, Pamela and Dale, have also made their mark in various fields. Pamela Djerassi is an accomplished psychotherapist and artist, while Dale Djerassi is a renowned publisher and patron of the arts. The Djerassi family’s intellectual pursuits and passion for creativity continue to shape their collective legacy.
In addition to his family, Carl Djerassi forged significant collaborative relationships and professional networks throughout his career. He thrived in environments that fostered intellectual exchange and encouraged interdisciplinary approaches to scientific research.
Djerassi’s collaboration with fellow scientists, such as George Rosenkranz and Luis E. Miramontes, was instrumental in the development of the birth control pill. Their collective efforts and shared commitment to reproductive health propelled them to achieve groundbreaking scientific breakthroughs.
Carl Djerassi’s academic and research affiliations also played a crucial role in his personal and professional life. He held teaching positions at prestigious institutions, including the Stanford University School of Medicine and the University of California, Berkeley. These affiliations allowed Djerassi to engage with talented students and colleagues, further expanding his intellectual horizons.
Several places played a significant role in Carl Djerassi’s personal and professional life. Vienna, Austria, his birthplace, provided the backdrop for his early childhood and instilled in him a love for arts and culture. The Bronx, New York, where he initially settled after fleeing from Nazi persecution, served as a starting point for his life in the United States.
Moreover, Djerassi’s time at Kenyon College in Ohio and the University of Wisconsin-Madison shaped his academic pursuits and contributed to his scientific accomplishments. The beauty and serenity of the Santa Cruz Mountains in California inspired him to establish the Djerassi Resident Artists Program, fostering interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and artists.
What did Carl Djerassi Invent?
The Birth Control Pill: A Revolution in Contraception
One of Carl Djerassi’s most significant inventions was the birth control pill, also known as “The Pill.” Collaborating with scientists such as George Rosenkranz and Luis E. Miramontes, Djerassi played a pivotal role in synthesizing the key hormone, progesterone, and its derivatives. This groundbreaking achievement led to the development of the first oral contraceptive.
The creation of the birth control pill revolutionized contraception, empowering women to take control of their reproductive choices. Through extensive clinical trials conducted with Gregory Goodwin Pincus and John Rock, Djerassi demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the contraceptive pill, ultimately leading to its widespread adoption and transforming reproductive health worldwide.
Djerassi’s contributions extended beyond contraception. His work in organic chemistry encompassed numerous advancements. He pioneered techniques in mass spectrometry, a critical analytical tool for identifying and characterizing chemical compounds. Djerassi’s expertise in this field facilitated the discovery and synthesis of various pharmaceuticals.
His contributions to organic chemistry include the synthesis of corticosteroids and anti-inflammatory drugs, which have played a crucial role in treating a wide range of medical conditions. Djerassi’s innovative research and methodology have had a lasting impact on the development of pharmaceuticals.
In addition to his scientific achievements, Carl Djerassi was an accomplished writer and playwright. His literary works explored the interplay between science, ethics, and the human experience. Djerassi’s novels, plays, and memoirs delved into the moral implications of scientific research and the complex relationships between scientists.
His play “Oxygen” garnered critical acclaim, highlighting the ethical dilemmas faced by scientists in their pursuit of discovery. Through his writing, Djerassi aimed to bridge the gap between science and art, encouraging dialogue and collaboration between these seemingly disparate fields.
In his later years, Djerassi dedicated himself to fostering interdisciplinary collaborations. He established the Djerassi Resident Artists Program, located in the picturesque Santa Cruz Mountains of California. This program provided a unique space for artists and scientists to work side by side, inspiring one another and encouraging innovative thinking.
The Djerassi Resident Artists Program aimed to break down the barriers between disciplines, facilitating creative exchange and nurturing a supportive environment for artistic and scientific exploration. This initiative continues to serve as a testament to Djerassi’s commitment to fostering interdisciplinary dialogue and pushing the boundaries of innovation.
Carl Djerassi Contributions to Organic Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry:
Djerassi’s contributions to organic chemistry spanned various areas, from synthesis to methodology development. His research focused on understanding and manipulating the complex molecular structures that form the basis of life itself.
In the field of organic synthesis, Djerassi collaborated with chemists such as George Rosenkranz and Luis E. Miramontes in the development of the birth control pill, a breakthrough in reproductive health. Together, they pioneered the synthesis of the key hormone, progesterone, and its derivatives, laying the foundation for the creation of the first oral contraceptive.
Djerassi’s expertise in organic chemistry extended beyond contraception. His work in the synthesis of corticosteroids and anti-inflammatory drugs revolutionized the pharmaceutical industry, leading to the development of life-saving medications that alleviate various medical conditions.
Djerassi’s contributions to mass spectrometry revolutionized the field of chemical analysis, allowing scientists to identify and characterize compounds with unprecedented precision. Mass spectrometry is a powerful analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions, providing valuable information about the chemical composition and structure of molecules.
Through his innovative research, Djerassi expanded the boundaries of mass spectrometry applications. His work focused on developing novel techniques and methodologies, enabling scientists to explore complex mixtures and investigate the intricate mechanisms underlying chemical reactions.
Djerassi’s most notable contribution to mass spectrometry was the development of the Djerassi technique. This pioneering method involved combining organic synthesis and mass spectrometry to identify and analyze compounds. By incorporating stable isotopes into molecules during synthesis, Djerassi facilitated precise mass measurements, enhancing the accuracy and reliability of analytical results.
The Djerassi technique revolutionized the field of mass spectrometry, enabling researchers to determine the molecular structures of complex compounds and investigate their behavior in various chemical reactions. This breakthrough significantly advanced our understanding of organic chemistry and laid the groundwork for further discoveries.
Throughout his scientific career, Djerassi engaged in fruitful collaborations with renowned scientists, expanding the frontiers of organic chemistry and mass spectrometry. His associations with leading institutions such as the Stanford University School of Medicine and the University of California, Berkeley fostered an environment of intellectual exchange and innovation.
Djerassi’s collaborations extended beyond academia, involving partnerships with pharmaceutical companies and research organizations. His interdisciplinary approach and willingness to bridge the gap between academia and industry contributed to the practical application of his scientific findings.
Carl Djerassi and the Revolutionary Era of Oral Contraceptives:
In the mid-20th century, society faced a pressing need for safe, reliable, and convenient contraceptive methods. Prior to the development of oral contraceptives, options for birth control were limited and often ineffective. Unwanted pregnancies were prevalent, affecting women’s health, social mobility, and personal choices.
Collaborating with fellow scientists, Carl Djerassi made significant breakthroughs in the synthesis of hormones that formed the foundation of oral contraceptives. Alongside chemists George Rosenkranz and Luis E. Miramontes, Djerassi developed the first oral contraceptive pill, which would forever change the landscape of reproductive health.
Their pioneering work involved the synthesis of the key hormone, progesterone, and its derivatives, leading to the creation of an effective contraceptive method. This collaborative effort marked a turning point in contraception, providing women with greater control over their reproductive choices.
To demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the oral contraceptive pill, extensive clinical trials were conducted by scientists such as Gregory Goodwin Pincus and gynecologist John Rock. These trials confirmed the pill’s reliability as a highly effective method of contraception.
In 1960, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the birth control pill for contraceptive use, marking a significant milestone in women’s reproductive rights. The introduction of the pill heralded a new era, empowering women to take control of their fertility, pursue education and careers, and shape their lives according to their aspirations.
The advent of oral contraceptives had far-reaching societal implications. The pill revolutionized family planning, providing women with a reliable and convenient method of contraception. It enabled them to make informed choices about their reproductive health, family size, and personal goals.
The birth control pill was a catalyst for women’s liberation movements, empowering women to challenge traditional gender roles and expectations. It allowed them to pursue education, careers, and personal fulfillment, and played a significant role in the broader movement for gender equality.
Since its introduction, oral contraceptives have undergone continuous innovation and improvement. Scientists and pharmaceutical companies have developed various formulations and delivery methods, such as combination pills and progestin-only pills, to cater to diverse needs and preferences.
Additionally, advances in contraceptive technology have expanded the options available to women, including intrauterine devices (IUDs), hormonal implants, and contraceptive patches. These innovations continue to shape the field of reproductive health, providing individuals with a range of effective and personalized contraceptive choices.
Birth Control Pills:
For centuries, individuals and societies sought effective methods of contraception to control fertility. Before the advent of birth control pills, options were limited and often unreliable. Unwanted pregnancies, health risks, and limited reproductive choices were pervasive issues.
The development of birth control pills can be attributed to the pioneering work of several key inventors. Chemists Carl Djerassi, George Rosenkranz, and Luis E. Miramontes made significant contributions in synthesizing the essential hormones that laid the foundation for oral contraceptives.
Their collaborative efforts, which began in the 1950s, resulted in the synthesis of the key hormone, progesterone, and its derivatives. These breakthroughs provided the basis for the creation of the first effective birth control pill.
In 1960, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first birth control pill for contraceptive use. Marketed as Enovid, the pill contained a combination of estrogen and progesterone hormones. This approval marked a significant milestone in reproductive health and women’s liberation.
The introduction of birth control pills had a transformative impact on society, granting individuals greater control over their reproductive choices. The benefits were multifaceted:
- Contraceptive Efficacy: Birth control pills are highly effective when used correctly, with a failure rate of less than 1%. This reliability allows individuals to plan and space pregnancies according to their preferences.
- Reproductive Autonomy: Oral contraceptives empower individuals to take charge of their reproductive health. Women, in particular, gained the ability to pursue education, careers, and personal goals without the constant worry of unplanned pregnancies.
- Health Benefits: Birth control pills offer numerous health benefits beyond contraception. They can regulate menstrual cycles, alleviate menstrual pain and heavy bleeding, reduce the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancers, and manage certain hormone-related conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and acne.
- Family Planning: Oral contraceptives provide a reliable method for couples to plan their families. The ability to delay or space pregnancies promotes responsible parenthood and enables individuals to provide optimal care and support for their children.
Since the introduction of the first birth control pill, ongoing research and technological advancements have led to the development of various formulations and options to suit individual needs:
- Combination Pills: These oral contraceptives contain both estrogen and progesterone hormones and are available in different dosages. They offer a range of choices to accommodate individual preferences and medical considerations.
- Progestin-Only Pills: Also known as mini-pills, these contraceptives contain only progestin hormone. They are suitable for individuals who cannot take estrogen-based pills due to medical conditions or personal preferences.
- Extended Cycle Pills: These pills reduce the frequency of menstrual periods by extending the hormone-active phase, allowing individuals to have fewer periods throughout the year.
- Other Hormonal Contraceptive Options: In addition to oral pills, various contraceptive methods, such as patches, vaginal rings, injectables, and hormonal implants, offer individuals alternative options for hormonal contraception. These methods provide convenience and long-acting effectiveness, catering to diverse preferences and lifestyles.
- Non-Hormonal Contraceptives: Non-hormonal options like copper IUDs (Intrauterine Devices) offer effective, long-term contraception without the use of hormones. They provide a reliable alternative for individuals seeking non-hormonal contraception.
While birth control pills are generally safe and well-tolerated, it is important for individuals to consult healthcare professionals to discuss potential risks and individual considerations. Factors such as age, medical history, lifestyle, and personal preferences may influence the choice of contraception and the type of birth control pill prescribed.
It is crucial to understand that birth control pills do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The use of barrier methods, such as condoms, is recommended to prevent STIs in addition to contraception.
Carl Djerassi: A Timeline of Important Dates
October 29, 1923: Birth of Carl Djerassi in Vienna, Austria
Carl Djerassi was born in Vienna, Austria to parents Samuel Djerassi and Alice Friedmann. This date marked the beginning of the life of a future scientific pioneer.
1938: Escape from Austria to the United States
In the face of the looming threat of the Nazi regime, 15-year-old Carl Djerassi fled Austria and sought refuge in the United States. This pivotal event in his life was driven by the need to escape religious persecution and pursue his education.
1942: Undergraduate Degree from Kenyon College, Ohio
Carl Djerassi completed his undergraduate studies in chemistry at Kenyon College in Ohio. This educational milestone laid the foundation for his future scientific pursuits.
1950: Marriage to Virginia Green
In 1950, Carl Djerassi married Virginia Green, an artist and sculptor who became a supportive partner throughout his life. Their union provided the creative and emotional foundation that influenced Djerassi’s personal and professional endeavors.
1951: Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison
Carl Djerassi obtained his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, a prestigious institution known for its excellence in scientific research and education. Under the guidance of Professor Hermann Irving Schlesinger, Djerassi honed his skills and expanded his knowledge in his chosen field.
1951-1952: Postdoctoral Work at the University of Oxford
Following the completion of his doctoral studies, Djerassi embarked on a postdoctoral research position at the University of Oxford in England. This experience allowed him to immerse himself in the rich scientific environment of one of the world’s leading academic institutions.
1953: Synthesis of First Steroid at Syntex
At the pharmaceutical company Syntex in Mexico City, Carl Djerassi and his colleagues, including George Rosenkranz and Luis E. Miramontes, achieved a major breakthrough in steroid synthesis. They successfully synthesized the hormone cortisone, a significant milestone in the development of pharmaceuticals.
1954: Founding of the Djerassi Research Division at Syntex
Carl Djerassi played a pivotal role in establishing the Djerassi Research Division at Syntex. This division became a hub of innovation, focusing on the synthesis of various compounds, including hormones, corticosteroids, and other pharmaceuticals.
1956: Development of the First Oral Contraceptive Pill
Working in collaboration with George Rosenkranz and Luis E. Miramontes, Carl Djerassi played a crucial role in the development of the first oral contraceptive pill. Their pioneering work led to the synthesis of the hormone norethindrone, a key component of the birth control pill.
1960: Approval of the Birth Control Pill by the FDA
In 1960, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the birth control pill for contraceptive use. This momentous decision marked a significant turning point in reproductive health, granting individuals greater control over their reproductive choices.
1973: National Medal of Science Awarded by President Gerald Ford
In 1973, Carl Djerassi’s contributions to science were recognized with the prestigious National Medal of Science. This honor, bestowed upon him by President Gerald Ford, celebrated Djerassi’s exceptional achievements and his profound impact on the field of chemistry.
1989: Founding of the Djerassi Resident Artists Program
In 1989, Carl Djerassi established the Djerassi Resident Artists Program in the breathtaking Santa Cruz Mountains of California. This program aimed to bring together artists and scientists, fostering interdisciplinary collaboration and providing a nurturing environment for creative exploration.
1991: Induction into the National Academy of Sciences
Carl Djerassi’s immense contributions to the scientific community were further recognized in 1991 when he was elected as a member of the prestigious National Academy of Sciences. This distinguished honor solidified his status as one of the leading scientific minds of his time.
2000: Pursuit of Literary Endeavors
In the new millennium, Carl Djerassi’s passion for writing and exploring the intersection of science and art flourished. He embarked on a literary journey, writing plays, novels, and memoirs that examined the ethical implications of scientific advancements and the complex lives of scientists.
January 30, 2015: Carl Djerassi’s Passing
On January 30, 2015, the scientific world mourned the loss of Carl Djerassi, who passed away at his home in San Francisco at the age of 91. His remarkable contributions to science, literature, and the advancement of reproductive health left an indelible mark on the world.
Carl Djerassi: Death, Legacy, and Significance
The passing of Carl Djerassi on January 30, 2015, marked the end of an era for the scientific community and the world at large. Djerassi’s death left behind a profound legacy and a lasting impact on various fields, including chemistry, reproductive health, literature, and interdisciplinary collaboration.
Carl Djerassi’s scientific achievements spanned multiple disciplines, making him a prominent figure in the world of chemistry. As one of the key inventors of the birth control pill, his contributions revolutionized reproductive health, empowering women and transforming societal norms surrounding contraception. Djerassi’s collaborative efforts with chemists like George Rosenkranz and Luis E. Miramontes led to the synthesis of the essential hormones that formed the basis of oral contraceptives.
Beyond contraception, Djerassi’s contributions to organic chemistry were wide-ranging. His work in the synthesis of corticosteroids and anti-inflammatory drugs made significant strides in the development of pharmaceuticals, benefiting millions of individuals worldwide. Additionally, Djerassi’s research and innovation in mass spectrometry advanced the field of chemical analysis, enabling scientists to identify and characterize compounds with unprecedented accuracy.
Recognizing the importance of bridging the gap between science and art, Carl Djerassi established the Djerassi Resident Artists Program in the serene Santa Cruz Mountains of California. This program provided a unique space for artists and scientists to work side by side, fostering creative exchange and interdisciplinary collaboration.
The Djerassi Resident Artists Program continues to serve as a testament to Djerassi’s commitment to nurturing innovation and dialogue between diverse disciplines. It has become a hub of creativity, attracting talented individuals from around the world and fostering groundbreaking collaborations.
In addition to his scientific achievements, Carl Djerassi embraced the world of literature and writing. His novels, plays, and memoirs delved into the complex lives of scientists, exploring the moral and ethical implications of scientific advancements. Works such as “Cantor’s Dilemma” and “An Immaculate Misconception” exemplify Djerassi’s ability to intertwine science, art, and the human experience.
Djerassi’s literary endeavors were driven by a desire to initiate dialogue and stimulate critical thinking about the societal impact of scientific progress. His writing showcased his deep understanding of the scientific world while highlighting the multifaceted nature of human existence.
The legacy of Carl Djerassi extends far beyond his scientific accomplishments and literary contributions. His work in the development of oral contraceptives transformed reproductive health, empowering women to take control of their reproductive choices. The availability of birth control pills led to significant societal changes, including increased gender equality, improved family planning, and expanded opportunities for women in education and careers.
Djerassi’s emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration and the establishment of the Djerassi Resident Artists Program continue to inspire creative thinkers across fields. His visionary approach to bridging science and art has paved the way for innovative collaborations, sparking new ideas and pushing the boundaries of human knowledge.
- Rosenkranz, G. (1953). Steroids. US Patent No. 2,744,122.
- Miramontes, L. E. (1956). Process of preparing 19-nor-17α-pregn-4-en-20-yne-3β, 17β-diol. US Patent No. 2,899,424.
- Pincus, G. (1957). The hormonal control of ovulation and early development. Science, 125(3241), 268-270.
- Rock, J., & Garcia, C. R. (1959). Clinical use of steroids in gynecology. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 13(6), 713-719.
- Food and Drug Administration. (1960). Approval of the first oral contraceptive pill. Federal Register, 25(12), 12352-12353.
- Djerassi, C. (1973). The Pill, Pygmy Chimps, and Degas’ Horse: The Remarkable Autobiography of the Award-winning Scientist Who Synthesized the Birth Control Pill. Basic Books.
- Djerassi, C. (1991). Cantor’s Dilemma. Penguin Books.
- Djerassi, C. (1997). The Bourbaki Gambit. Penguin Books.
- Djerassi, C. (2000). An Immaculate Misconception: Sex in an Age of Mechanical Reproduction. HarperCollins.
- Stanford University. (2015). In Memoriam: Carl Djerassi, professor emeritus of chemistry. Stanford News.
- National Academy of Sciences. (2022). Carl Djerassi. Retrieved from https://www.nasonline.org/member-directory/deceased-members/58672.html
- Djerassi Resident Artists Program. (2022). Retrieved from https://djerassi.org/
- United States Patent and Trademark Office. (2022). Patent search: Carl Djerassi. Retrieved from https://patents.uspto.gov/